Instructions for Authors

01. Mission and scope

The Brazilian Journal of Neurosurgery – JBNc (ISSN print 0103-5118, ISSN online 2446-6786) is an online journal published by the Academia Brasileira de Neurocirurgia. The journal is fully open access, peer reviewed and accepts submissions written in English, Portuguese, or Spanish. Accepted contributions are published in a quarterly issue-based model with four issues per year, and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license. JBNc does not charge submission or publication fees.


02. Manuscript preparation guidelines

Section specific requirements 

Submissions must follow the limits and specific requirements outlined on the table below, according to their section.

Section Abstract Text sections Text length Tables & Figures References (max)
Original article structured not exceeding 200 word introduction, methods, results, discussion, conclusion and references 4000 words 10 75
Review (preferably systematic review) non-structured not exceeding 200 words introduction, method, results, discussion, conclusion and references 4000 words 10 75
Case Report (preferably with systematic rev << non-structured not exceeding 200 words introduction (with brief literature review), clinical case presentation, discussion, final comments and references 3500 words 8 45
Short Notes non-structured not exceeding 200 words no requirement 1500 words 3 30
Clinical Images non-structured not exceeding 200 words no requirement 1500 words 5 30


In the Introduction section we state the motivation for the work presented in the manuscript. Its contents could be: 1) context (to orient readers who are less familiar with the topic and to establish the importance of the manuscript), 2) need (to state the need for the work, as an opposition between what the scientific community currently has and what it wants), 3) task (to indicate what was done in the effort to address the need), and 4) object of the document (to prepare the readers for its structure).

Clinical case presentation

Patient’s clinical data in comprehensive account of the presenting features, with medical, and social, family history, if needed are presented. All crucial investigations to the management of decisions should be discussed. Images of the case: Choose appropriate images being aware of removing any detail that can identify the patient. If relevant, describe the treatment or surgery. Outcomes and follow-up are described elsewhere.


In Materials and Methods section, the technical specifications and quantities and source or method of preparation are described. Attention to the use only scientific names of drugs; inclusion of the manufacturer in brackets when describing equipment. Discuss statistical methods if needed.


In Results section, the results of the paper are presented in logical order, using tables and graphs as necessary. Remember that results must be presented and then explained. The results are explained showing how they help to answer the research questions (already cited in the Introduction section).


In Discussion section, the principles, relationships and generalizations shown by the results are presented. Also, exceptions or lack of correlations are pointed out. The authors show how their results agree or disagree with previously published papers, and discuss the theoretical implications as well as practical applications of the paper, and the significance of their results.


In Conclusions section the most important outcome of the work is stated, and interpretation of the findings also. If the authors have succeeded, or not, in addressing the need stated in the Introduction is reported here.

Product names

If any product is cited in the manuscript the usage of ® or ™, and manufacturer data are mandatory. Use only scientific names of drugs. Include the manufacturer in brackets when describing equipment.

Units of measurement

Units of measurements should follow the primary language used (Portuguese/Spanish or English).

Abbreviations and symbols

Abbreviatons should follow the first mention of the term in the manuscript. The list of abbreviations is waived.


Footnotes are used only in Tables/Boxes


03. Use of colors

Although the use of color is permitted, it is important that authors (or professionals hired for editing) make an effort to ensure that the use of color does not impair understanding for readers with some form of visual impairment. We recommend consulting the following resources before preparing figures or tables using colors:


04. Figures preparation guidelines

Graphs, photographs, diagrams, illustrations, and similar content should be referred to as figures (e.g., Figure 1, Figure 2, Figures 1, 2, 5-7) in ascending order according to their appearance in the text. Authors are strongly advised to adhere to the guidelines specified in the 'Use of Colors' and 'Preparation and Manipulation of Figures' sections below, in line with the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations.

When using arrows, symbols, letters, or numbers to highlight specific parts of the figures, authors must clearly describe their purpose in the corresponding figure caption. Additionally, in compliance with privacy concerns and ICMJE recommendations for the protection of research participants, images containing photographs of people must ensure that individuals cannot be identified unless their explicit permission for publication has been obtained. This ensures the protection of individual privacy and aligns with ethical standards in scholarly publication.

Preparation and manipulation of figures

We strongly recommend that authors (or professionals hired for editing) follow the guidelines outlined below.

Resolution and formats

Graphics, photographs, diagrams, illustrations, etc., should be submitted in TIFF or JPG formats, with high resolution (see recommended minimum image sizes below). Consider whether the figure will be published occupying the full width of the page or column, and then ensure that it allows for the perfect readability of all texts and symbols used.

Recommended minimum image sizes:

  • Between 2500 and 5000 pixels in width: For full page width images or panels.
  • Between 1200 and 2400 pixels in width: For column or half page width images.

Editing and manipulation

When preparing your images, be careful when using filters or other types of editing to include highlights, etc. Images should not be manipulated or adjusted excessively in a way that could lead to misinterpretation of the information.

The following recommendations must be observed:

  • Photographs or images generated digitally or by programs and equipment should be of the highest quality possible.
  • Before-and-after photographs should have the same dimensions, orientation, framing, lighting, and color balance.
  • Micrographs and similar images should indicate the magnification and include a scale bar.
  • Histological sections should indicate the type of staining, magnification, and include a scale bar.
  • Photographs and images, when necessary, should include (in a standardized manner) arrows or other markings to identify the information in their caption.

Additionally, we strongly encourage authors (or professionals hired for editing) to observe and follow these additional recommendations:


05. Tables preparation guidelines

Never build tables using spaces or tabs. Tables and Boxes must be created using the text editor built-in table creation tool and follow the following guidelines:

  • Identify tables (Table 1, Table 2, Tables 1, 2, 5-7, etc.) in ascending order according to their first in-text citation.
  • Avoid using colors to convey meaning, as screen readers and people with visual impairments may be disadvantaged. When absolutely necessary the use of colors should follow the guidelines in the "Use of colors" section.
  • When using arrows, symbols (*, ‡, §, ∤, #, ¢, £, etc.), letters or numbers to include notes, be sure to clearly identify their use in the respective caption or table footnote.
  • The use of decimal markers and the thousand separators must be observed and follow the text language.
  • To maximize interoperability the use of diagonal cell splits is forbidden as these are not properly translated into XML and other electronic formats.

Table captions and footnotes

Captions should be explanatory, starting with the identification in bold (Table 1, Table 2, Tables 1, 2, 5-7, etc.), followed by a period and descriptive text. Explanation about acronyms or other information must be done using symbols (*, ‡, §, ∤, #, ¢, £, etc.), letters, numbers, etc., and be inserted in the footer of the table.

Every table must include an indication of the source and citations whenever relevant, and authors are responsible for obtaining the correct authorization for use (or adaptation of data) from other sources, as appropriate, directly from the copyright owner.


06. References and citations

References List

References should adhere to the Vancouver system. List all references in consecutive order as they appear in the text. For publications with up to six authors, list all authors. For publications with more than six authors, list the first six followed by 'et al.'. Whenever available insert the PMIDs (PubMed identifier) and the full DOI URL (e.g.,[...]). Personal communications should not be included in the references list but may be mentioned in the text.

For examples and detailed guidelines, refer to the "Samples of formatted references for authors of journal articles" available at

Authors that have deposited their data in a public data repository must cite and include a full reference providing a direct link (preferably a DOI) to the dataset.

📑 References Citation

In the text, cite references in consecutive order using Arabic numerals (1,2,3...) in superscripT 1,2,3. Ensure that each citation corresponds accurately to a numbered reference in the references list (in citation order). This system allows readers to locate the source easily in the references list.


07. Submission guidelines

Submission checklist

Before submitting your manuscript to the Brazilian Journal of Neurosurgery (JBNc), please ensure that you have followed all policies and instructions detailed in our submission guidelines. Carefully review each of the following items in the checklist to ensure a thorough and compliant submission:

  • Read Policies and Instructions for Authors: Thoroughly read and understand the journal's policies and the detailed instructions for authors to ensure compliance with all requirements.
  • Title Page: A properly formatted title page containing essential details about your manuscript as outlined in the submission instructions.
  • Cover Letter: A letter introducing your manuscript, its importance, and confirming its originality.
  • Author Statements: Ensure that all required declarations and statements are provided according to their respective policies.
  • Main Manuscript: The complete manuscript prepared according to the journal's formatting and structuring requirements. Note: This file MUST NOT have any author data, and MUST HAVE the titles in English/Portuguese, English/Spanish, Spanish/Portuguese
  • References and Citations: Ensure that all sources referenced in their work are cited accurately and formatted correctly.
  • Original Figures: High-resolution images (if applicable), each submitted as a separate file.
  • Tables: Make sure your tables are editable and designed using your text editor table tool.
  • Disclosure Forms: Completed forms disclosing any potential conflicts of interest for all authors.
  • License Agreement: A signed agreement form from all authors, granting necessary publishing rights to the journal.
  • Reporting Guideline Files: Relevant checklists (e.g., CARE, PRISMA) filled out as per the type of your study.
  • Revision Comments File: (If submitting a revised version) A document addressing reviewers' and editors' comments from previous submission rounds.

Please review each of these components carefully to ensure compliance with our standards. Complete and accurate submission of these documents is essential for the effective handling of your manuscript.

Required files

As part of your submission to the Brazilian Journal of Neurosurgery (JBNc), you are required to upload various files. Each file serves a specific purpose in the submission and review process. Please refer to the table below for a detailed overview of the required files, their designations, filenames, and the necessity of each file.

File designation Filename Required?
Title page titlepage.docx Yes.
Cover letter coverletter.docx Yes.
Main manuscript manuscript.docx Yes.
Original figure figure1.jpg, figure2.jpg etc. Yes, if images are used.
Disclosure forms Yes.
License agreement agreement.pdf Yes.
Reporting guideline files care-checklist.pdf, prisma-checklist.pdf etc. Yes, depending on the type of work.
Revision comments file revisioncomments.pdf Yes, when sending the revised version of your manuscript.

Please ensure that each file is prepared according to the guidelines provided below. Accurate and complete file submission is crucial for the efficient processing and review of your manuscript.

Title page

Filename: titlepage.docx (Template)

The title page is a critical component of your submission and should include the following information, organized clearly and in order:

  • Submission Type (in English): Indicate the manuscript type as per JBNc section policies.
  • Institutional Affiliation: Provide the name of the institution where the study was conducted, including city and country.
  • Title: Provide the title of the manuscript in English, and in the original language if the main text is not English.
  • Authors list: Include the full names of all authors, along with their highest degree, e-mail, institutional affiliations, and ORCID ID. The order of the names should be as it will be published.
  • Abstract: Present a concise abstract of the manuscript in English, and in the original language if the main text is not English.
  • Keywords: List relevant keywords in English, and in the original language if the main text is not English.
  • Corresponding author’s information: Provide the full name, postal and electronic addresses of the corresponding author.
  • Conflicts of interest statement (in English): Disclose any potential conflicts of interest.
  • Financial support statement (in English): Acknowledge any financial support or grants received in relation to the study.
  • Authors’ responsibility and contributions declaration (in English): Declare each author's specific contributions to the work.
  • Institutional ethics committee approval (in English): Include a statement of approval or waiver from the Institutional Ethics Committee.
  • Data availability statement: Include a concise data availability statement detailing whether their research data is publicly accessible.
  • Clinical trials approval and registration statement (in English): If applicable, provide the registration statement and approval for clinical trials.

Cover letter

Filename: coverletter.docx

The cover letter should introduce your manuscript and explain its importance to the field of neurosurgery. It must include a declaration that the work is original, has not been published elsewhere, and is not under consideration by any other journal. The letter should briefly outline the major findings of your study and how they contribute to the existing knowledge. Additionally, any potential conflicts of interest or important points not covered in the manuscript or in other submission files should be disclosed. The cover letter is also an opportunity to suggest preferred or opposed reviewers and to provide any other information that may assist the editorial process.

Main manuscript file

Filename: manuscript.docx

The main manuscript file must NOT contain any data from the institution or the authors.

The main manuscript file must contain TITLE, ABSTRACT and the full text and be structured according to the requirements described in our Section Policies and the Manuscript preparation guidelines section.

Please also make sure to follow all of our instructions for authors.

Original figures files

Filename: figure1.jpg, figure2.jpg etc.

Each figure must be submitted as a separate file. Ensure that all figures are of high resolution and clearly labeled to correspond with their citations in the manuscript text.

Please also make sure each figure adheres to the journal's guidelines for figure preparation, including any specifications for file format, resolution, and size.

Disclosure forms

Filename: (ICMJE Disclosure of Interest Template)

This file should contain completed disclosure forms for all authors, declaring any potential conflicts of interest. These forms are essential for maintaining transparency and upholding the integrity of the publication process. Ensure that each author's form is included and that all information is current and accurate.

Please also make sure that each author reviews and follows our authorship and ethics policies.

Attention: Each author must fill and sign their own disclosure form individually.

License agreement

Filename: agreement.pdf (Template)

All authors must sign the Authorship Responsibility and License Agreement. By signing this form, the authors accept that they have contributed significantly to the work, agree to the terms of publication, and grant the journal the necessary publishing rights. This agreement is crucial for copyright management and clarifies the permissions for reproducing and distributing the work.

Reporting guideline files

Filename: care-checklist.pdf, prisma-checklist.pdf etc.

For manuscripts that follow specific reporting guidelines such as CARE for case reports or PRISMA for systematic reviews, the corresponding completed checklist must be submitted. This ensures adherence to the highest standards of transparency and detail in reporting. The checklist should be filled out comprehensively, indicating where in the manuscript each guideline item is addressed. The filename should clearly correspond to the relevant guideline.

Please also make sure to review and follow our reporting guidelines policies.

Revision comments file

Filename: revisioncomments.pdf

In response to the editorial review, authors must submit a file detailing how they have addressed each comment or suggestion. This file should systematically list the reviewers' and editors' comments, followed by the authors' response and explanation of the corresponding changes made in the manuscript. The document should be structured to make it easy for reviewers and editors to verify that all feedback has been considered and appropriately addressed.

Please also make sure to review and follow our peer review process.


JBNC  Brazilian Journal of Neurosurgery

  •   ISSN (print version): 0103-5118
  •   e-ISSN (online version): 2446-6786


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