ORIGINAL

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Mortality of Abusive Head Injury in Children Under One Year Old in Brazil

Impacto da Pandemia pelo COVID-19 na Mortalidade por Abuso em Crianças Menores de um Ano no Brasil

  • Mariana Gonçalves Lima de Paula (1)    Mariana Gonçalves Lima de Paula (1)
  • Cristiano Frattesi Bernardes (1)    Cristiano Frattesi Bernardes (1)
  • Maria Thereza Parreiras Amaral (2)    Maria Thereza Parreiras Amaral (2)
  • Isabela Canedo Campos Schettino (2)    Isabela Canedo Campos Schettino (2)
  • Leopoldo Mandic Ferreira Furtado (3)    Leopoldo Mandic Ferreira Furtado (3)
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Resumo

Introdução: a pandemia pela COVID-19 impactou as políticas públicas de saúde em todo o mundo produzindo desemprego e aumento do risco de traumatismo por abuso na população pediátrica. O fechamento temporário das escolas durante a pandemia, apresenta o potencial de relacionar-se ao aumento dos traumas infantis, especialmente aqueles relacionados a traumas por causas violentas em crianças menores de um ano as quais são vulneráveis as agressões, bem como o aumento da mortalidade por traumatismo cranioencefálico (TCE) acidental. Assim, a hipótese desse estudo é que o isolamento social pode ter aumentado a mortalidade por causas violentas, como o TCE por abuso. Objetivo: avaliar o impacto da pandemia pela COVID-19 na mortalidade pelo TCE não acidental em menores de um ano. Métodos: o estudo analisa dados relativos aos óbitos dos pacientes com idade abaixo de um ano devido a causas externas e por violência, obtidos a partir do banco de dados do DATASUS em todos os estados brasileiros, separados em três períodos: pré-pandemia (2018-2020), pandemia (2020-2023) e pós-pandemia (após maio de 2023). Resultados: no período pré-pandemia, houve média mensal de 3,1 óbitos por TCE. Durante a pandemia, 2,9 óbitos/mês e no período pós-pandemia, 3,75 óbitos/mês. A média de óbitos por agressões antes da pandemia foi de 0,75 óbitos/mês, durante a pandemia 0,57 óbitos e no pós-pandemia 0,75 óbitos. Conclusão: o estudo sugere que durante a pandemia pelo COVID-19 ocorreu redução na incidência de óbitos devido a TCE por abuso em menores que um ano no Brasil.

Palavras-chave

Trauma não acidental; Síndrome Shaken Baby; Traumatismo por abuso; Epidemiologia

Abstract

Introduction: the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted public health policies around the world producing unemployment and increasing the risk of trauma for abuse in the pediatric population. The temporary closing of schools during the pandemic raises concerns about a possible increase in injuries, especially those related to trauma from violent causes, in children under one year of age, which was more prone to suffer this type of injury and evaluate to increase in mortality from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Thus, social isolation may have increased mortality from violent causes, such as non-accidental TBI. Objective: to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mortality from non-accidental TBI in children under one year old. Methods: the study analyzes data relating to deaths of patients aged under one year due to external causes and violence, deaths from the DATASUS database in all Brazilian states, separate into three periods: Pre-pandemic (2018-2020), Pandemic (2020-2023) and post-pandemic (after May 2023). Results: in the pre-pandemic period, there was a monthly average of 3.1 deaths due to intracranial trauma. During the pandemic, 2.9 deaths/month and in the post-pandemic period, 3.75 deaths/month. The average number of deaths from aggression before the pandemic was 0.75 deaths/month, during the pandemic 0.57 deaths and post-pandemic 0.75 deaths. Conclusion: the study suggests that during the COVID-19 pandemic a decrease of deaths was observed due to abusive head trauma in children under one year of age in Brazil.

Keywords

Non-accidental trauma; Shaken baby; Trauma from abuse; Epidemiology

References

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1 MS, Medical student, Department of Medicine, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Contagem, MG, Brazil.

2 MS, Medical student, Department of Medicine, Faculdade Ciências Médicas de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

3 MD, Doctorate student in Neuroscience, Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Hospital Vila da Serra, Oncoclínicas, Nova Lima, MG, Brazil

 

Received Nov 13, 2023

Accepted Jan 14, 2024

JBNC  Brazilian Journal of Neurosurgery

  •   ISSN (print version): 0103-5118
  •   e-ISSN (online version): 2446-6786

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